LM Crew Equipment Arrangement








Pressure Garment Assembly Diagram


3-12.3.1 Communications Carrier




See Integrated Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment Diagram






3-12.6.1. PLSS Remote Control Unit Secondary Life Support System








3-12.11 Waste Management System














Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly Diagram




Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package Diagram





3-12. CREW PERSONAL EQUIPMENT. (See LM Crew Equipment Arrangement

 figure 3-12-1.)


Crew personal equipment (CPE) includes a variety of mission-oriented equipment required for life support and astronaut safety, and accessories related to successful completion of the mission. The equipment ranges from astronaut space suits and docking aids to personal items stored throughout the cabin.


In the Modified LM, the following changes have been made to the CPE

·       New MESA with portable equipment pallets and modified sample return equipment table

·       Provisions for a shirtsleeve operation in the cabin

·       Liquid waste management system

·       Modularized ascent stage stowage provisions

·       Third sample return container


The modularized equipment stowage assembly (MESA) and the Apollo lunar scientific equipment package (ALSEP) are stored in the descent stage. This equipment is used for sample and data collecting and scientific experimenting. The resultant data will be used to derive information on the atmosphere and distance between earth and the moon. The portable life support system (PLSS) interfaces with the Environmental Control Subsystem (ECS), for refills of oxygen and water. The pressure garment assembly or the advanced extravehicular suit interface with the ECS for conditioned oxygen, through oxygen umbilicals, and with the Communications and Instrumentation Subsystems for communications and bioinstrumentation, through the electrical umbilical.




The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) provides life support in a pressurized or unpressur­ized cabin, and up to 4 hours of extravehicular life support.


LM Crew Equipment Arrangement


In its extravehicular configuration, the EMU is a closed-circuit pressure vessel that envelops the astronaut. The environment inside the pressure vessel consists of 100% oxygen at a nominal pressure of 3.75 psia. The oxygen is provided at a flow rate of 6 cfm. The extravehicular life support equipment configuration includes the following:


·        Liquid cooling garment (LCG)

·        Pressure garment assembly (PGA)

·        Integrated thermal micrometeoroid garment (ITMG)

·        Portable life support system (PLSS) Secondary life support system (SLSS)

·        Communications carrier

·        EMU waste management system

·        EMU maintenance kit

·        PLSS remote control unit

·        Extravehicular visor assembly (EVV A)

·        Lunar extravehicular visor assembly (LEVA)

·       Biomedical belt




Although shirtsleeve operation is possible in the cabin, the LCG may also be worn. The LCG is worn during all extravehicular activity. It cools the astronaut's body by absorbing body heat and transferring excessive heat to the sublimator in the PLSS. The LCG is a one piece, long-sleeved, integrated-stocking undergarment of netting material. It consists of an inner liner of Beta cloth, to facilitate donning, and an outer layer of Beta cloth into which a network of Tygon tubing is woven. The tubing does not pass through the stocking area. A double connector for incoming and outgoing water is located on the front of the garment. Cooled water, supplied from the PLSS, is pumped through the tubing. Pockets for bioinstrumentation signal conditioners are located around the waist. A zipper that runs up the front is used for donning and doffing the LCG; and opening at the crotch is used for urinating. Dosimeter pockets and snaps for attaching a biomedical belt are part of the LCG.


3 -12. 3. PRESSURE GARMENT ASSEMBLY (See Pressure Garment Assembly Diagram figure 3 -12 . 2 . )


The PGA (soft suit) is the basic pressure vessel of the E MU. It can provide a mobile life ­ support chamber if cabin pressure is lost due to leaks or puncture of the vehicle. The PGA consists of a helmet, torso and limb suit, intravehicular gloves, and various controls and instrumentation to provide the crewman with a controlled environment. The PGA is designed to be worn for 115 hours, in an emergency, at regulated pressure of 3. 75+/-0.25 psig, in conjunction with the LCG.


The PGA (soft suit) is the basic pressure vessel of the E MU. It can provide a mobile life ­ support chamber if cabin pressure is lost due to leaks or puncture of the vehicle. The PGA consists of a helmet, torso and limb suit, intravehicular gloves, and various controls and instrumentation to provide the crewman with a controlled environment. The PGA is designed to be worn for 115 hours, in an emergency, at regulated pressure of 3. 75+0. 25 psig, in conjunction with the LCG.


The torso and limb suit is a flexible pressure garment that encompasses the entire body, except the head and hands. It has four gas connectors, a PGA multiple water receptacle, a PGA electrical connector, and a PGA urine transfer connector for the PLSS/PGA and ECS/PGA interface. The PGA connectors have positive locking devices and can be connected and disconnected without assistance, The gas connectors comprise an oxygen inlet and outlet connector, on each side of the suit front torso. Each oxygen inlet connector has an integral ventilation diverter value. The PGA multiple water receptacle, mounted on the suit torso, serves as the interface between the LCG multiple water connector and PLSS multiple water connector. A protective external cover provides PGA pressure integrity when the LCG multiple water connector is removed from the PGA water receptacle. The PGA electrical connector, provides a communications, instrumentation, and power interface to the PGA. The PGA urine transfer connector on the suit right leg is used to transfer urine from the urine collection transfer assembly (UCTA) to the waste management system.


The urine transfer connector permits dumping the urine collection bag without depressurizing the PGA. A pressure relief valve on the suit sleeve, near the wrist ring, vents the suit in the event of overpressurization. If the valve does not open, it can be manually overridden. A pressure gage on the other sleeve indicates suit pressure.


The helmet is a Lexan (polycarbonate) shell with a bubble-type visor, a vent-pad assembly, and a helmet-attaching ring. The vent-pad assembly permits a constant flow of oxygen over the inner front surface of the helmet. The astronaut can turn his head within the helmet neck-ring area. The helmet does not turn independently of the torso and limb suit. The helmet has provisions on each side for mounting an EVA. When the vehicle is unoccupied, the helmet protective bags are stowed on the cabin floor, at the crew flight stations.


Pressure Garment Assembly Diagram


The intravehicular gloves are worn during operations in the cabin. The gloves are secured to the wrist rings of the torso and limb suit with a slide lock; they rotate by means of a ball-bearing race. Freedom of rotation, along with convoluted bladders at the wrists and adjustable antiballooning restraints on the knuckle areas , permits manual operations while wearing the gloves.


All PGA controls are accessible to the crewman during intravehicular and extravehicular operations. The PGA controls comprise two ventilation diverter valves, a pressure relief valve with manual override, and a manual purge valve. For intravehicular operations, the ventilation diverter valves are open, dividing the PGA inlet oxygen flow equally between the torso and helmet of the PGA. During extravehicular operation, the ventilation diverter valves are closed and the entire oxygen flow enters the helmet. The pressure relief valve accommodates flow from a failed-open primary oxygen pressure regulator. If the pressure relief valve fails open, it m ay be manually closed. The purge valve interfaces with the PGA through the PGA oxygen outlet connector. Manual operation of this valve initiates an 8 -pound/ hour purge flow, providing C02 washout and minimum cooling during contingency or emergency operations. A pressure transducer on the right cuff indicates pressure within the PGA. Biomedical instrumentation comprises an EKG (heart) sensor, ZPN (respiration rate) sensor, dc-to-dc converter, and wiring harness. A personal radiation dosimeter (active) is attached to the integrated thermal micrometeoroid garment for continuous accumulative radiation readout. A chronograph wristwatch (elapsed-time indicator) is readily accessible to the crewman for monitoring.


3-12.3.1 Communications Carrier


The communications carrier (cap) is a polyurethane-foam headpiece with two independent earphones and microphones, which are connected to the suit 21 -pin communications electrical connector. The communications carrier is worn with or without the helmet during intravehicular operations. It is worn with the helmet during extravehicular operations.


3-12.4. INTEGRATED THERMAL MICROMETEOROID GARMENT. ( See Integrated Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment Diagram

 figure 3-12. 3. )


The ITMG, worn over the PGA, protects the astronaut from harmful radiation, heat transfer, and micrometeoroid activity. It is a one-piece, form-fitting, multilayered garment that is laced over the PGA and remains with it. The EVA, gloves, and boots are donned separately. From the outer layer in, the ITMG is made of a protective cover, a micrometeoroid-shielding layer, a thermal -barrier blanket (multiple layers of aluminized mylar), and a protective liner. For extravehicular activity, the PGA gloves are replaced with the extravehicular gloves. The extravehicular gloves are made of the same material as the ITMG to permit handling intensely hot or cold objects outside the. cabin and for protection against lunar temperatures. The extravehicular boots (lunar overshoes) are worn over the PGA boots for extravehicular activity. They are made of the same material as the ITMG. The soles have additional insulation for protection against intense temperatures.


Integrated Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment Diagram





The LEVA furnishes visual, thermal, and mechanical protection to the helmet and head. It is composed of a plastic shell, sun blinders, and two visors. The outer (sun) visor is made of polysulfone plastic. The inner protective visor is made of UV-stabilized polycarbonate plastic. The outer visor filters visible light and rejects a significant amount of ultraviolet and infrared rays. The inner visor filters ultraviolet rays and, in combination with the pressure helmet, forms an effective thermal barrier. The two visors, in combination, protect the pressure helmet from micrometeoroid damage and from damage in the event of impact with the lunar surface. A hard shell protects the sun visor when the visor is not used.


The sun visor may be positioned anywhere between “full up” and “full down” if the protective visor is “full down.” The force required for moving either visor is 2 to 3 pounds. The force has been determined as necessary to prevent inadvertent movement of either visor from a selected position. An astronaut can either attach or detach the LEVA from his helmet without the aid of tools. A latching mechanism allows the lower rim of the LEVA to be tightened and secured around the neck area of the pressure helmet. The mechanism consists of an overcenter latch, which locks on the lower rim, draws the two sides together, and holds them secure. The LEVA/PGA interface collar provides thermal protection for the neck ring.




The PLSS is a self-contained, self-powered, rechargeable environmental control system. In the extravehicular configuration of the EMU, the PLSS is worn on the astronaut' s back.


The PLSS supplies pressurized oxygen to the PGA, cleans and cools the expired gas, circulates cool liquid in the LCG through the liquid transport loop, transmits astronaut biomedical data, and functions as a dual VHF transceiver for communication.


The PLSS has a contoured fiberglass shell to fit the back, and a thermal micrometeoroid protective cover. It has three control valves and, on a separate remote control unit, two control switches, a volume control, and a five-position switch for the dual VHF transceiver. The remote control unit is set on the chest.


The PLSS attaches to the astronaut's back, over the ITMG; it is connected by a shoulder harness assembly. When not in use, it is stowed on the floor or in the left-hand midsection. To don the PLSS, it is first hooked to the overhead attachments in the left-hand midsection ceiling. The astronaut backs against the pack, makes PGA and harness connections, and unhooks the PLSS straps from the overhead attachment.


The PLSS can operate for 4 hours in space environment before oxygen and feedwater must be replenished and the battery replaced. The basic systems and loops of the PLSS are a primary oxygen subsystem, an oxygen ventilation loop, a feedwater loop, liquid transport loop, and an electrical system.


The space suit communicator (SSC) in the PLSS provides primary and secondary duplex voice communication and physiological and environmental telemetry. All EMU data and voice must be relayed through the LM and CM and transmitted to MSFN via S-band. The VHF antenna is permanently mounted on the secondary life support system (SLSS). Two tone generators in the SSC provide audible 3 - and 1.5 -kHz warning tones to the communications cap receivers. The generators are automatically turned on by high oxygen flow, low vent flow, or low PGA pressure. Both tones are readily distinguishable.










3-12.6.1. PLSS Remote Control Unit


The PLSS remote control unit is a chest-mounted instrumentation and control unit. It has a fan switch, pump switch, SSC mode selector switch, volume control, PLSS oxygen quantity indicator, five status indicators, and an interface for the SLSS actuator. Secondary Life Support System


The secondary life support system (SLSS) is a self contained, independently powered, nonrechargeable emergency oxygen system. It provides 90 minutes of oxygen for lunar surface activities and 30 minutes of oxygen for orbital extravehicular activities. The SLSS is essentially a miniaturized PLSS, but does not contain a communications system. The SLSS supplies pressurized oxygen to the PGA, cleans and cools the expired gases , and supplies cooled water to the LCG from a rechargeable liquid cooling system , In the normal extravehicular configuration, the SLSS is mounted on top of the PLSS; for contingency operation, the SLSS is attached to the PGA front lower torso. A SLSS for each astronaut is stowed in the LM.


3.12-7 Umbilical Assembly


The Umbilical Assembly consists of separable flexible hoses and connectors for securing the PGA to the ECS, Communication System (CS), Instrumentation Subsystem (IS), Oxygen, water and electrical umbilicals, to each astronaut.


The oxygen umbilicals consist of hoses (1.25-inch inside diameter) with corrosion resistant wire reinforcement. The connectors are of the quick-disconnect type, with a 1.24-inch 90° elbow at the PGA end. Each assembly is made up of two hoses and a dual passage connector at the ECS end and two separate hoses (supply and exhaust) at the PGA end. When not connected to the PGA, the ECS connector end remains attached and the hoses stowed.


Separate water hoses and an electrical cable are connected to the oxygen umbilical by straps secured by snap fasteners. The electrical umbilical carries voice communications and biomedical data, and electrical power for warning-tone impulses. The water hoses circulate water through the LCG.




The crew life support equipment includes food and water, a waste management system, personal hygiene items, and pills for in-flight emergencies. A portable-water unit and food packages contain sufficient life-sustaining supply for completion of the LM mission.




The water dispenser assembly consists of a mounting bracket, a coiled hose, and a trigger -actuated water dispenser. The hose and dispenser extend approximately 72 inches to dispense water from the ECS water feed control assembly. The ECS water feed control valve is opened to permit water flow. The dispenser assembly supplies water at +50° to +90° F for drinking or food preparation and fire extinguishing. The water for drinking and food preparation is filtered through a bacteria filter. The water dispenser is inserted directly into the mouth for drinking. Pressing the trigger-type control supplies a thin stream of water for drinking and food preparation. For firefighting, a valve on the dispenser is opened. The valve provides a greater volume of water than that required for drinking and food preparation.




The astronauts’ food supply (approximately 3,500 calories per man per day) includes liquids and solids with adequate nutritional value and low waste content. Food packages are stowed in the LM midsection, on the shelf above PLSS No.1, the right-hand stowage compartment, and the MESA.


The food is vacuum packed in plastic bags that have one-way poppet valves into which the water dispenser can be inserted. Another valve allows food passage for eating. The food bags are packaged in aluminum-foil-backed plastic bags for stowage and are color coded: red (breakfast), white (lunch), and blue (snacks).


Food preparation involves reconstituting the food with water. The food bag poppet-valve cover is cut with scissors and pushed over the water dispenser nozzle after its protective cover is removed. Pressing the water dispenser trigger releases water. The desired consistency of the food determines the quantity of water added. After withdrawing the water dispenser nozzle, the protective cover is replaced and the dispenser returned to its stowage position. The food bag is kneaded for approximately 3 minutes, after which the food is considered reconstituted. After cutting off the neck of the food bag, food can be squeezed into the mouth through the food -passage valve. A germicide tablet, attached to the outside of the food bag, is inserted into the bag after food consumption, to prevent fermentation and gas formation. The bag is rolled to its smallest size, banded, and placed in the waste disposal compartment.


3-12.11 Waste Management System


The modified waste management system provides for disposal of body waste through use of a fecal mater containment and system and a urine collection and transfer assembly, and for neutralization odors. The waste storage container, in the descent stage, accommodates the functions (urine stowage, SLSS and PLSS condensate stowage and gas separation) formerly served by two separate containers. The size and skin thickness (and therefore the weight) of the container is minimized because associated gases and pressure are vented to the lunar environment. Biological contamination of the lunar surface is avoided by incorporation of a bacteria filter at the vent port. An electrical heater prevents ice accumulation, at the inlet and vent ports, which might otherwise result from exposure of the liquid to the lunar vacuum and low temperature.


A urine receptacle (stowed in the cabin area) collects urine by direct interface with the crew. This assembly consists of a hose and a quick-disconnect, which connects to the PGA waste connecter.


The quick-disconnect on the urine receptacle and the overboard dump line contains a self-sealing valve. This feature enables cabin pressure to be retained when the quick-disconnect is broken. In addition, a safety pressure cap on the hose quick-disconnect provides a redundant method of preventing lose of cabin atmosphere.


The hose assembly mates with the vent and drain ports of the PLSS and SLSS for water recharge. The PLSS and SLSS condensates are transferred to the descent stage container, using the pressure available at the PLSS and SLSS to effect the transfer.


A folding, stowable seat together with replaceable plastic bag serves as the fecal collection unit. The bags incorporate a sealing device and contain germicide packets and disposable towels.




Personal hygiene items consist of tissues, towel s, and wet facial wipes, chemically treated and sealed in plastic covers. The wipes measure 4 by 4 inches and are folded into 2 inch squares.




The medical equipment consists of biomedical sensors, personal radiation dosimeters, and emergency medical equipment.


Biomedical sensors gather physiological data for telemetry. Impedance pneumographs continuously record heart beat (EKG) and respiration rate. Each assembly (one for each astronaut) has four electrodes, which contain electrolyte paste; they are attached with tape to the astronaut' s body.


Six personal radiation dosimeters are provided for each astronaut. They contain thermoluminescent powder, nuclear emulsions, and film that is sensitive to beta, gamma, and neutron radiation. They are placed on the forehead or right temple, chest, wrist, thigh, and ankle to detect radiation to eyes, bone marrow, and skin. Serious, perhaps critical, damage results if radiation dosage exceeds a predetermined level. For quick, easy reference each astronaut has a dosimeter mounted on his EMU. 


The emergency medical equipment consists of a kit of six capsules: four are pain killers (Darvon) and two are pep pills (Dexedrine). The kit is attached to the interior of the flight data file, readily accessible to both astronauts.




The crew support and restraint equipment includes armrests, handholds (grips), Velcro on the floor to interface with the boots, and a restraint assembly operated by a rap-and-pulley arrangement that secures the astronauts in an upright position under zero-g conditions.


The armrests, at each astronaut position, provide stability for operation of the thrust/ translation controller assembly and the attitude controller assembly, and restrain the astronaut laterally. They are adjustable (four positions) to accommodate the astronaut; they also have stowed (fully up) and docking (fully down) positions. The armrests, held in position by spring-loaded detents, can be moved from the stowed position by grasping them and applying downward force. Other positions are selected by pressing latch buttons on the armrest forward area. Shock attenuators are bull t into the armrests for protection against positive -g forces (lunar landing). The maximum energy absorption of the armrest assembly is a 300-pound force, which will cause a 4-inch armrest deflection.


The handholds, at each astronaut station and at various locations around the cabin, provide support for the upper torso when activity involves turning, reaching, or bending; they attenuate movement in any direction. The forward panel handholds are single upright, peg-type, metal grips. They are fitted into the forward bulkhead, directly ahead of the astronauts, and can be grasped with the left or right hand.


The restraint assembly consists of ropes, restraint rings, and a constant-force reel system. The ropes attach to D-rings on the PGA sides, waist high. The constant-force reel provides a downward force of approximately 30 pounds, it is locked during landing or docking operations. When the constant-force reel is locked, the ropes are free to reel in. A ratchet stop prevents paying out of the ropes and thus provides zero-g restraint. During docking maneuvers, the Commander uses pin adjustments to enable him to use the crewman optical alignment sight (COAS) at the overhead (docking) window.




Docking operations require special equipment and tunnel hardware to effect link up of the LM with the CSM. Docking equipment includes the COAS and a docking target. A drogue assembly, probe assembly, the CSM forward hatch, and hardware inside the LM tunnel enable completion of the docking maneuver.


The COAS provides the Commander with gross range cues and closing rate cues during the docking maneuver. The closing operation, from 150 feet to contact, is an ocular, kinesthetic coordination that requires control with minimal use of fuel and time. The COAS provides the Commander with a fixed line-of-sight attitude reference image, which appears to be the same distance away as the target.


The COAS is a collimating instrument. It weighs approximately 1.5 pounds, is 8 inches long, and operates from a 28 -volt d-c power source. The COAS consists of a lamp with an intensity control, a reticle, a barrel-shaped housing and mounting track, and a combiner and power receptacle. The reticle has vertical and horizontal 10° gradations in a 10° segment of the circular combiner glass, on an elevation scale (right side) of -10° to +31.5°. The COAS is capped and secured to its mount above the left window (position No.1).


To use the COAS, it is moved from position No. 1 to its mount on the overhead docking window frame (position No. 2) and the panel switch is set from OFF to OVHD. The intensity control is turned clockwise until the reticle appears on the combiner glass; it is adjusted for required brightness.


The docking target permits docking to be accomplished on a three-dimensional alignment basis. The target consists of an inner circle and a standoff cross of black with self-illuminating disks within an outer circumference of white. The target-base diameter is 17. 68 inches. The standoff cross is centered 15 inches higher than the base and, as seen at the intercept, is parallel to the X-axis and perpendicular to the Y-axis and ·the Z-axis.


The drogue assembly consists of a conical structure mounted within the LM docking tunnel. It is secured at three points on the periphery of the tunnel, below the LM docking ring. The LM docking ring is part of the midsection outer structure, concentric with the X-axis. The drogue assembly can be removed from the C SM end or LM end of the tunnel.


Basically, the assembly is a three-section aluminum cone secured with mounting lugs to the LM tunnel ring structure. A lock and release mechanism, on the probe, controls capture of the CSM probe at CSM LM contact. Handles are provided to release the drogue from its tunnel mounts.


The tunnel contains hardware essential to final docking operations. This includes connectors for the electrical umbilicals, docking latches, probe-mounting lugs, tunnel lights, and deadfacing switches.


The probe assembly provides initial CSM-LM coupling and attenuates impact energy imposed by vehicle contact. The probe assembly may be folded for removal and for stowage within either end of the CSM transfer tunnel.




Miscellaneous equipment required for completion of crew operations consists of in-flight data with checklists, emergency tool B, and window shades.


The in-flight data are provided in a container in the left-hand midsection. The Commander' s checklist is stowed at his station. The in -flight data kit is stowed in a stowage compartment. The packages include the flight plan, experiments data and checklist, mission log and data book, systems data book, and star charts.


Tool B (emergency wrench) is a modified Allen -head L-wrench. It is 6.25 inches long and has a 4.250 -inch drive shaft with a 7 /1 6 -inch drive. The wrench can apply a torque of 4,175 inch-pounds; it has a ball -lock device to lock the head of the drive shaft. The wrench is stowed on the right side stowage area inside the cabin. It is a contingency tool for use with the probe and drogue, and for opening the CM hatch from outside.


Window shades are used for the overhead (docking) window and forward windows. The window shade material is Aclar. The surface facing outside the cabin has a highly reflective metallic coating. The shade is secured at the bottom (rolled position). To cover the window, the shade is unrolled, flattened against the frame area and secured with snap fasteners.


3-12.17 MODULARIZED EQUIPMENT STOWAGE ASSEMBLY (See Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly Diagram Figure 3-12.4)


The MESA pallet is located in quad 4 of the descent stage. The pallet is deployed by the extravehicular astronaut when the LM is on the Lunar Surface. It contains fresh PLSS batteries and LiOH cartages, a TV camera and cable, still cameras, tools for obtaining lunar geographical samples, food, film, and containers in which to store the samples. It also has a folding table on which to place the sample return containers. Pallets are provided and are used to transfer the PLSS batteries and the cartridges to the cabin.


The PLSS LiOH cartridges and PLSS batteries are temperature-sensitive items. Their temperature range is from is +30° to +120° F. To prevent exceeding the minimal allowable temperature, there are heaters near critical items. Low-emissivity coatings on exposed MESA surfaces, and a segmented insulation blanket, are also provided. The temperature in the PLSS cartridge area and in the area that contains the PLSS battery, 70mm-magazine, and stereo camera is telemetered.


Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly Diagram



3-12-18. APOLLO LUNAR SURFACE EXPERIMENT PACKAGE (See Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package Diagram figure 3-12 . 5. )


The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP) consists of two packages of scientific instruments and supporting subsystems capable of transmitting scientific data to earth for one year. These data will be used to derive information regarding the composition and structure of the lunar body, its magnetic field, atmosphere and solar wind. Two packages are stowed in quad 2 of the descent stage. The packages are deployed on the lunar surface by the extravehicular astronaut.


ALSEP power is supplied by a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Electrical energy is developed through thermoelectric action. The R TG provides a minimum of 16 volts at 56. 2 watts to a power-conditioning unit. The radioisotopes fuel capsule emits nuclear radiation and approximately 1,500 thermal watts continuously. The surface temperature of the fuel capsule is approximately 1,400° F. The capsule is stowed in a graphite cask, which is externally mounted on the descent stage. The capsule is removed from the cask and installed in the RTG.


Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package Diagram